Wednesday, 21 November 2012

Heart attacks more common among the unemployed

People who have recently lost their jobs are more likely to suffer a heart attack than their employed peers, in some cases running a risk as high as 35%, according to a US study.

Researchers, whose results appeared in the Archives of Internal Medicine, found that each successive job loss was tied to a higher chance of heart problems among more than 13 000 older adults, although it’s not clear how unemployment itself might have caused the extra heart attacks.

A combination of stress, worsening lifestyle and poor management of chronic conditions without health insurance may be to blame, said Matthew Dupre, the lead researcher from the Duke Clinical Research Institute in Durham, North Carolina.

“Those without a job may be unable to control their high blood pressure or to manage their diabetes (with their usual medication), or rates of smoking may be exacerbated,” Dupre told Reuters Health.

But it’s still too early to know for sure what’s behind the link, he said, which means it’s also too early to recommend ways to ward off heart problems among the recently-employed.

The data came from a large US study of 13 451 adults who were interviewed every other year, for an average of 12 years, about their health, lifestyle and life events such as employment and job loss.

The study participants were 55 years old at the onset, on average, and two-thirds of them were overweight or obese. One in seven people was initially unemployed.

During the research period, 1 061 of the participants — almost 8% — had a heart attack.

Dupre’s team found that the more times people had been let go leading up to the latest survey, the higher their chance of having a heart attack.

Unemployment was still linked to a 35% increased risk of heart attack after the researchers had accounted for the effects of poverty and education, as well as race, age and other heart risks.

“We weren’t surprised to find the association, but we were surprised to find that the effects were so large, on par with classic risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes,” Dupre said. “The associations are strong, and they remain despite accounting for a whole host of possible explanations.”

People were especially likely to have a heart attack during their first year of being out of work, they reported.

Dupre said people who have recently lost their jobs, as well as the doctors who treat them, should be aware of these added heart risks and be extra vigilant about the signs and symptoms of a heart attack.

The author of a commentary that appeared with the study said more research is needed to understand the link and who may be most at risk.

Studies have shown “a fairly convincing relationship between job loss and adverse health,” said William Gallo, from City University of New York.

“Egregiously absent is research on why and how a socioeconomic exposure, such as job loss, influences health.”


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